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Table 9 Features of the CEPAO program

From: An overview of the plastic-hinge analysis of 3D steel frames

Features Problem types
Elastic–plastic analysis Limit analysis Shakedown analysis Limit optimization Shakedown optimization
Orbison yield surface (“Plastic-hinge modeling”)a ×     
AISC yield surface (“Plastic-hinge modeling”)   × × × ×
P-δ effect (“Member modeling”) ×     
Spread of plasticity in the plastic hinge (“Member modeling”) ×     
Initial imperfections (“Member modeling”) ×     
Lateral-torsional buckling (“Member modeling”) ×(c)     
Local buckling (“Member modeling”) ×     
Member stability checkb     × ×
Conventional second-order approach (“Large displacements”) ×     
Co-rotational approach (“Large displacements”) ×     
Semi-rigid connection (“Consideration of connections”) ×     
Partial connection (“Consideration of connections”) × × × × ×
Cost of connection (“Consideration of connections”)     × ×
  1. “x”: implanted in the program
  2. aThe first coefficient (1.15 in Eq. (1)) has been replaced by 1.0 in CEPAO
  3. bAs the different effects (second-order, P-δ, etc.) have been not yet introduced in the optimization options, so a stability check according to Eurocode 3 has been adopted to check for individual members
  4. cThe practical method proposed in Kim [45] have been adopted in the program
  5. In the CEPAO, Newton–Raphson method (See Chan [7]) is used for the incremental-iterative strategy and the force incremental method (See Wang [74]) is adopted to recover the element forces